This standard is a pretty straightforward one to master, once you know what to look for.
There are some groups or families of elements that have special names, probably because of their importance in the early days of chemical understanding. For quick reference, and to make it easier to communicate with each other, this standard states the expectation that you will be able to identify elements that belong in the groups shown on the drawing below:
This periodic table shows the location of the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals transition metals, halogens and noble gases.
After seeing where the locations are, look at a standard periodic table, like this one and try to identify each of the following:
1 calcium (Ca)
2 lithium (Li)
3 xenon (Xe)
4 gold (Au)
5 chlorine (Cl)
6 argon (Ar)
7 barium (Ba)
8 sodium (Na)
9 iron (Fe)
10 bromine (Br)
Check your answers here.
This standard is really easy to master, if you know the basic layout of the periodic table. There is a stairstep-looking boundary that divides the periodic table into its two main parts. It starts below boron (B) and jogs down underneath silicon (Si), arsenic (As) and tellurium (Te). Every element that touches this line, except aluminum (Al) is a metalloid (also called a semimetal). To the right of the boundary are the nonmetals. Hydrogen looks like it’s on the left, but it is actually also a nonmetal. To the left of the boundary are the metals, including the two rows on the bottom of the table that start with Ce and Th:
The blue boundary divides the periodic table into metals (purple zone), nonmetals (green zone) and metalloids (touching the boundary).
This standard states:
I am able to state and apply the First Law of Thermodynamics.
We started out with a Statement of the First Law of Thermodynamics. I followed it up with an alternative version, shown in blue:
The 1st Law of Thermodynamics, stated 2 different ways.
Then I showed a way of representing the 1st Law of Thermodynamics symbolically. Whatever energy goes into any device, system or process is the maximum you can get out after the device or process has transformed the energy.
A symbolic way of stating the 1st Law of Thermodynamics
Then I showed an example of what this means, using a scheme many non-scientists over the years have tried to accomplish–using the output from a generator to power the motor that drives the generator:
This perpetual motion machine couldn’t power anything.
You can never accomplish anything with a scheme like this, because the very maximum amount of energy the generator could produce is the amount needed to power itself. (Actually, there is a 2nd Law of Thermodynamics that says you can’t even power the motor with this generator, but that’s another topic for another time.)
Next, we looked at several examples of energy sources we use here on earth to heat ourselves and do work. It turns out that all the energy (even the “free” stuff we get from renewable methods like solar, wind and biomass) is not created, but originally came from the sun, our big power source for this planet.
All the energy sources we use in Earth come from the sun either directly or indirectly.